Monday, February 24, 2020
Funny Story - Essay Example Luckily, my girlfriend was there to get me out otherwise I probably would have drank the entire fountain. Then we had to walk all the way back to the hotel; I was freezing, cold, and miserable. Needless to say those photos showed up on facebook. The second time I fell into a fountain I was with my family. We were at Universal Studios with my grandparents and we entered one of those little kid areas. My younger brother and I brought a football so we could throw when we got bored. My parents were getting a picture of my grandparents next to a fountain. My brother threw me a long pass and as I ran to catch it, I knocked my grandma into the fountain with me. Luckily no one got hurt, but my grandmother and I were so soaked that we had to go to the souvenir store and buy all new clothing to replace the wet ones. I have learned that when it comes to fountains and vacations that I have this power that always makes sure that I land in one. Even though they were embarrassing at the moment, the y remind me of good past memories and create jokes about what will happen in the future. If I am ever near a fountain again, I will have to be sure to wear a wetsuit and pack an extra set of clothes. I hope that as the admissions committee that you received a good laugh and remember to always pack a towel around fountains.
Friday, February 7, 2020
Formal systematic learning is of less important than informl learning. Discuss this statement with reference to theories of learning - Term Paper Example In relation to standard typology, there is a need to gain more understanding of intended learning not separately, but in connection to others. The role played by informal learning and tacit knowledge in organizations is widely acknowledged but insufficiently understood. It is one of the core premises of adult learning that adults resort to life experience to beneficial outcome in learning or training programs (Smith & Defrates-densch 2008). There is sparse previous empirical evidence regarding how this occurs, and none of which puts emphasis on tacit knowledge use and its role in the learning mechanisms and outcomes in shifting between contexts over time (Smith & Defrates-densch 2008). The need for broader recognition of skills and knowledge through informal learning is only one aspect of a debate focused on the characteristic of the purported knowledge-based economy and the ways whereby the knowledge involved is organized and applied (Moon 2004). The current debate has been intensified by economists and labor market scholars, generating new potentials for interdisciplinary engagement with learning scholars and social/educ ational specialists in attempting to understand more what it is that really makes up the knowledge-based economy and the position of informal learning in this context (Rainbird & Munro 2004). Informal learning includes accidental learning in the workplace and in areas of endeavors outside the formal economy. It may also involve intended and explicit frameworks of learning performed in any of these contexts which are not acknowledged within the system of formal education and training (Bratton, Mills, & Pyrch 2003). Informal learning has well-built tacit domains. The explicit is easily collected, organized, and communicated to others whereas the tacit is personal, subjective and experiential, and considerably harder to communicate (Evans, Hodkinson, & Unwin 2002). This paper argues
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Playing monopoly Essay Pretend to embrace a technology and become the major source for that technology like buy out the competitors. Declare it obsolete because your original way is better. Wait long enough for a technique or idea to be forgotten by the majority of people or just long enough that the majority of your followers are naive newbies. Bring out the old idea and present it as a new invention. For example, many things in Visual Studio . Net are presented as new ideas even though they have existed in RAD tools like Delphi for over a decade. Why this works? because the majority of new software geeks have no idea what Delphi is and didnt know that you could do everything exactly the way Microsoft claims you can in their Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ invention. It is very much clear about incidences that Microsoft has been unethical in its approaches. Rather that applying their own thoughts, most of the products they have released by copying ideas unethically from other competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Rather than having the fair competition in the market Gates always tried to monopolize the market. Though all the monopoly has brought him profit but ethically Microsoft didnÃ¢â¬â¢t 2. Some of the characteristics of the market that created monopoly market that MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s operating system enjoyed are as follows: Incorporation of various Microsoft applications like Windows Digital Media Player and Internet Explorer in 1995 with its operating system gave an advantage to the company as this monopoly worked out for them. Users using Windows didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want themselves to get into trouble of purchasing a different browser and different Media Payer. Users were also not ready to pay extra money for buying other companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ applications, as all those applications were readily available with MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s operating system. Every company was releasing their applications and operating systems in the market and every time Microsoft was able to know their programs. Using those programs Microsoft created monopoly in the market by releasing advanced version of competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ products. As when Navigator came in 1994, Microsoft launched Internet Explorer which was borrowed from Spyglass Inc. and made it similar to Navigator. It incorporated Internet Explorer with Windows. Media player was also incorporated in Windows. Sun MicrosystemsÃ¢â¬â¢s Java was also licensed to Microsoft first and then Microsoft built its own Microsoft java permitting Windows Users to be compatible with it. In the software industry users did not want to shift to new products or applications until proper training and workshops are organized. MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s used good PLAYING MONOPOLY: MICROSOFT Javier Ian Gonzalez Lopez 1449556 Ã¢â¬â 9zi strategies for training users. With the Installation disk, a proper tour of Windows is provided to facilitate user. Attorney General Janet Reno filed an antitrust suit against Microsoft in the court of Judge Thomas Jackson. Microsoft made the computer companies using Windows as their operating system not to license, distribute or promote competitive software products of other companies. It embedded Internet Explorer with Windows and thus demolished consumer freedom to go for any other Browser plus it also degraded windows performance. In the agreements with computer companies those using Windows, Microsoft wanted them to leave Internet Explorer as the default WebÃ¢â¬âBrowser and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow installation of any other browser. The judge was having complete authority to take hard actions against MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s unethical business strategies. As per the case study it is evident that Microsoft has used various unethical business strategies to make their business profitable. Microsoft copied the copyright of AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s OS/2 and developed its own operating system on the same line. Moreover they forced users to use its Internet Explorer and digital media player. They suppressed the platform independent functionality of SunÃ¢â¬â¢s Java by releasing MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Java and making it cross platform language. In my view, government should not have sued Microsoft. Consumers were well satisfied by Windows which was evident from the market share of its use. So signing of agreement involves approval of computer companies and Microsoft and if computer companies have signed that agreement that means they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t having any problems and neither consumers upon implementing the agreement. So Microsoft just used a marketing strategy over here. Judge JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s order was fair for the competitors as well as for the software industry because Microsoft has really invoked the monopoly situation in the market. It was essential to have fair competition in the market. As an operating system and applications are totally two different aspects and Microsoft should not club these two aspects. This order would have helped competitors and users to choose their favorite applications. From MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view it was not the fair decision, as they never wish to separate their business into two domains. It was a marketing strategy adopted by Microsoft so that it can withstand with the PLAYING MONOPOLY: MICROSOFT Javier Ian Gonzalez Lopez 1449556 Ã¢â¬â 9zi competition. According to them it also facilitated consumers for not spending their money in buying other corresponding software and also playing a risk of installing and uninstalling. According to the settlement between Microsoft and DOJ, Microsoft was asked to share its application programming interface with other software rivals and to allow users to hide Internet Explorer icon from the screen. It was asked not to prevent other competitors programs to install on its operating system and not to retaliate against computer makers in releasing their products. This settlement was officially approved by Judge Kollar-Kotelly on November 1, 2003. The decision was really fair for the competitors as well as users. The decision has created free competitive market in the software industry. It allows users to use other available applications and allow them to hide icons which they do not want to use. From competitors point of view market became much more open to release more products with advanced technologies. This move also helped people to think out of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s box and helped to showcase their technical skills. As a result various new operating systems with better performance than Windows like Linux, Suse, Monopoly of MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s operating system has harmed everyone from users to computer producers. Due to unavailability of fair market the users were bound to use MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s operating system and applications. They were unable to hide icons of the MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s applications from their operating system. From producerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, they were not free to launch Windows compatible applications due to unavailability of Windows application programming interface in the market. The competition became minimal in the market due to monopoly enjoyed by Microsoft. Due to monopoly in the market one single company Microsoft was holding maximum market share. It hampered the technical advancement and innovation in the market as well. Some of the following public policies could be used to deal with monopoly Ã¢â¬ ¢Government should issue some standards for a given technology/system/product which should be followed by everyone in the industry. Ã¢â¬ ¢Anti-monopoly law can be created to prevent monopoly to occur in the market. Ã¢â¬ ¢Some policies can be incorporated in the system to motivate and encourage newly launched companies to increase the innovation in the market. PLAYING MONOPOLY: MICROSOFT Javier Ian Gonzalez Lopez 1449556 Ã¢â¬â 9zi Ã¢â¬ ¢Some policies should be made to share information among the companies whose applications are inter dependant.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Pictorial Narratives: HogarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Marriage Ã la Mode One of HogarthÃ¢â¬â¢s bitterest satires, Marriage Ã la Mode, showed the disastrous results of a marriage of convenience concluded between the son of a poverty-stricken nobleman and the daughter of an aspiring merchant (Jarrett 88). Yet this background information is not necessary to appreciate each painting independently. From the first painting, in which the ambitious fathers of the couple exchange money and titles, to the final two prints that show the husband and wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s melodramatic deaths, each of the six prints tells both a episode in the story of this doomed arranged marriage and a story in and of itself. The first two Marriage Ã la Mode prints, The Marriage Settlement and Shortly After the Marriage, both contain numerous works of art, architecture, period dress and other carefully placed props that allow each work to tell a story without being dependent on the context of the series. Because of its immense detail, The Marriage Contract is perhaps one of the easiest prints to appreciate. Even without any prior knowledge of this work, an inexperienced art critic can still ascertain that the scene takes place in an aristocratic home. Copies of paintings after the old masters hang in gilt frames, the ceiling is painted and the walls hung with green damask. Two men sit at a table in some sort of business transaction, as evidenced by the presence of three lawyers, numerous documents and money. The gentleman on the rightÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait hangs on the wall above the table, indicating that the deal is being brokered in his home. He is correspondingly dressed in fine clothes, whereas the other gentleman is more modestly attired. The skill with which Hogarth has represented the swelling aristocratic pride of the Earl and the lower-bred, commercial demeanor of the Sheriff was regarded by eighteenth-century critics, best acquainted with the social manners of their age, as masterly (Webster 103). A document that reads Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage Settlement of the Rt. Honble Lord Viscount SquanderfieldÃ¢â¬ rests in the hand of the non-artistocratic gentleman, his careful perusal of the document indicating that he is the brideÃ¢â¬â¢s father. In turn, he has handed over a sum of money to the ViscountÃ¢â¬â¢s father (who the inexperienced viewer can assume holds the title earl). In turn, the Earl points to his contribution to the marriag... ...m each other. The Roman bust with a broken nose on the mantle and the painting above it, featuring Cupid playing a song on the bagpipes ironically titled Ã¢â¬Å"O Happy GrovesÃ¢â¬ amidst falling ruins, suggest the similarly ruined and collapsing state of the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage. Hogarth's remarkably exuberant satire of marriage for money, his pungent details of upper-class life, and his mastery of complex scenes find perhaps their highest expression in this series, generally considered his finest work. (Encarta). Although critics have commented that the series progresses somewhat abruptly, with little idea of what occurs in between the six scenes, rarely is any one painting referred to independent of the others. But because of the complexity of each scene, the paintings, The Marriage Contract and The TÃ ©te-Ã -TÃ ©te in particular, can easily stand by themselves as brilliant satires of arranged marriage in the 18th century. Such is the genius of Hogarth. Works Cited Hallett, Mark. Hogarth. London: Phaidon Press, 2000. Jarrett, Derek. England in the Age of Hogarth. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon Ltd, 1974. Webster, Mary. Hogarth. Danbury, CT: MasterWorks Press, 1984.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Managers run organizations by the decisions they make on a daily basis. The quality of these decisions, to a smaller or greater degree, impacts the success or failure of an organization. Managers encounter challenges and opportunities every day. Some situations require actions that are very straightforward; others, not so simple. Some decisions need to be made right away, while others take a long period of time to be made. Decision making can be challenging, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s important we understand why. In this paper, we will cover the main characteristics of managerial decisions, the stages of decision making, and the tools a manager has to achieve efficient decision making in a challenging and uncertain work environment. Characteristics of Managerial Decisions Structure: For most routine decisions, there is a determined procedure, or structure, that helps managers solve a problem. If itÃ¢â¬â¢s a routine problem, then they have standard responses. In these situations, managers only have to implement previously stated solutions, from past experiences in the organization. Unfortunately, not all decisions are programmed. New problems arise all the time in an organization, and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when managers have to get creative to solve them. Past experience helps, so does intuition, but the decision maker, in this case, has to create, or rely on a method for making the decision. In this case, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no standard response. Uncertainty and Risk: As Schermerhorn, Hunt, & Osborn (1994) point out, problem solving decisions in organizations are typically made under three different conditions or environments: certainty, risk, and uncertainty. When information is sufficient, and outcomes of decisions are predictable, you are working in an environment of certainty. However, for most important decisions, uncertainty is to be expected. Uncertainty exists when a manager doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough information to assign probabilities to the consequences of different possible decisions. A manager might have a good guess, or opinion, but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know for sure if something will or wonÃ¢â¬â¢t happen. Whenever thereÃ¢â¬â¢s uncertainty, and something to lose, then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s risk. Risk isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a bad thing; itÃ¢â¬â¢s just the fact that comes with any managerial decision. Choosing one alternative over another can imply losing time, or money, so every decision entails risk. Managers have to be aware that with their decisions they manage risk. With good planning and problem resolution, risk can be minimized and controlled. Contending Interests: J. Davids (2012) talks about decisions that affect people with contending interests. An example of this is a CFO who argues in favor of increasing long-term debt to finance a purchase. On the other hand, the CEO wants to minimize long-term debt and find the funds somewhere else. In another example, a marketing department wants more product lines to sell, the engineers want higher quality of products, and the production manager wants less variety of products to lower costs. In these situations, itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to the decision maker to fashion a workable decision that reflects an appreciation of all these antagonizing point of views. If a key playerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective isnÃ¢â¬â¢t taken into consideration, and the manager pushes forward in the decision process, the outcomes will probably not satisfy the decision makersÃ¢â¬â¢ plans. There are different approaches to managing participation of multiple players that weÃ¢â¬â¢ll touch on a bit later. Stages of Decision Making Situation: The first step in the decision making process is knowing the situation. This means, recognizing a problematic situation that exists, and must be fixed. This usually implies comparing things the way they are now, to what they should be. An example of this is comparing the actual expenses to the budgeted expenses. Another example is looking at this quarterÃ¢â¬â¢s sales, and comparing them to the previous quarter. The problem that needs to be solved is usually an opportunity that managers seek to take advantage of. Bowen, Lewicki, Hall, Hall (1997) present an interesting approach of looking at a problem. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a technique referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"framingÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"reframingÃ¢â¬ . There are four essential perspectives of organization and management theory that help us define a situation. * Structural.Ã This perspective deals with the activities, functions assignments, tasks and so forth. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s basically who does what and who reports to whom. * Human. This point of view looks at issues of how people and organizations relate, how organizations satisfy peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, provide meaningful work, productivity, and relationships in the organization. * Political. This frame of mind looks at the organization as a system with shifting bases of power, and conflicts between different groups fighting for limited resources. * Symbolic. The symbolic frame references the culture of the organization, made up by ceremonies, rites, stories, and so on. When dealing with a problem difficult to resolve, the manager can look at it, and use these different vantage points. This will help see the problem from a new perspective, and define the situation with a different understanding, and meaning of the problem. Options: Bateman and Snell (2011) refer to this stage in the decision making process, as Ã¢â¬Å"generating and evaluating alternative solutionsÃ¢â¬ . What they mean by this is, once the problem is defined, the manager, or decision maker, has to develop different courses of action aimed at solving the problem. Solutions might be found by using similar tactics used in previous problems. Custom made solutions are the other option. These take creativity and probably more resources. This step is key in the decision making process. Many times managers donÃ¢â¬â¢t take the time to brainstorm and come up with alternatives. In a hypothetical situation where the decision maker is trying to improve the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom line, there are many options. You can increase prices to improve margin, advertise your productsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality to increase sales, drop prices to increase sales, open new service lines that will give you higher participation in the market, just to name a few. The point is: itÃ¢â¬â¢s important for the manager to take his time and consider all the options. Once managers have different options, they have to evaluate them, and come up with the best one. The best way of evaluating the options is measuring the consequences of the different alternatives. Measures such as lower costs, higher market share, bigger bottom line, employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, just to name a few. Ethical aspects of decision making should also be considered in this step. Richard Ritti and Steve Levy (2010) combine what we previously mentioned about certainty, risk, and uncertainty, with alternative decisions. We can have an alternative solution that implies increasing production of a service line by 15%, but based on the uncertainty of the environment, we have a decrease in the demand by 20%. This, in retrospect would be a bad choice. What I mean by this is, not all results can be predicted with perfect precision. In an uncertain environment, what decision makers have to consider, is creating contingency plans. These are plans that will be implemented if the future develops differently than what expected. Choose: Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve generated different options, and evaluated them, itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to choose which one is best. The manager must have an assertive attitude, and not over think the decision. Once the decision maker has all the information heÃ¢â¬â¢s going to have, he just has to take the leap and make the decision. Bateman and Snell (2011) bring in a few interesting concepts to this decision making step. These steps are maximizing, satisficing, and optimizing. * Maximizing: Maximize means, to make the most out of something, in this case, the decision. Maximizing requires looking carefully for a complete variety of alternatives, evaluating them, and then choosing the best. Maximizing is the better strategy for important decisions. Managers that are maximizers, plan systematically in solving problems, and their high expectations of quality drives them to achieve great results. * Satisficing: Satisficing is choosing the first satisfactory option, rather than looking for the optimal decision alternative. This concept was originally referred to by Herbert Simon (1947). He stated: Ã¢â¬Å"Most human decision making, whether individual or organizational, is concerned with the discovery and selection of satisfactory alternatives; only in exceptional cases is it concerned with the discovery and selection of optimal decisions. When managers make decisions, many times they are facing limitations, such as time barriers, unavailability of information, and other situations that make finding the optimal option impossible. When the decision isnÃ¢â¬â¢t of great importance, satisficing could be the optimal approach. * Optimizing: Managers have to balance their decisions. Since there are contending interests in many of the imp ortant decisions in the organization, managers have to find an alternative that meets multiple criteria, and achieves the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. Act:Ã Once the problem has been recognized, alternatives generated and evaluated, and the choice has been made, someone has to act. Also known as the implementation process, managers have to plan it vigilantly. Sometimes thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a Ã¢â¬Å"disconnectÃ¢â¬ between what was planned, and what is implemented. The people involved in the process assume things are just magically going to occur. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s up to the manager to ensure things are taking shape. Good communication is essential in this implementation process, especially since this is when all the change happens. People arenÃ¢â¬â¢t naturally comfortable with change, so the manager has to be clear with the steps that have to take place. The manager must manage the chronological order in which things have to happen and delegate the individuals responsible for each task. He must ensure everyone understands their role, and knows what the final outcome should look like. The buy-in from the different players in the organization, when implementing decisions that cause change, will dictate the outcome of the implementation stage. If needs were ignored when making the decision, or if the paths of communication havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been fluid in the process, it will be very hard to implement change effectively. The manager must take these things into consideration if he wants to avoid potential problems that arise in this step of the process. Evaluate: Evaluating the decision is the last step in the decision making process. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time for the results to determine whether the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s choice is having the effect it was intended to have. For this stage to be successful, there has to be measurable results; they must be quantifiable. For an adequate evaluation of the decision, a validating mechanism collects information and compares it to an expected value. That validating mechanism can be set and developed even before the solution to the problem is determined. If the decision made proves to be effective, and the results show that the goals were met, then this decision could serve another purpose elsewhere in the organization. The positive feedback will be welcomed by the manager, and reinforce the decision making process. If the results demonstrate negative results, then itÃ¢â¬â¢ll take some good analysis to see where things have gone wrong. Things might have gone wrong in any of the previous stages. ItÃ¢â¬â¢ll take brainstorming, and effort to assess what things need to happen to put things on the right track. Participation in Decision Making As Bowen et al. (1997) point out, most changes in organizations not only require technical modifications, but alterations in the work and social satisfactions of the employees. This makes the challenge of implementing change even greater. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not only important that the new methods are efficient; they must also be accepted by the employees who will be implementing these changes. In this context, managing the participation of the employees in making a decision plays an important role. There are different approaches when making decisions that involve change. They can be grouped into different variants of authoritative decisions, mutual problem solving, and consultative decisions. In the authoritative decision alternative, the manager makes the decision alone. Then he puts together arguments and rational information to show the employees the advantages of change. In the mutual problem solving approach, the manager shares the problem with his employees, and the group works together to come up with a final decision. The consultative approach is a middle ground; the manager shares the problem with the group, obtains ideas and suggestions, and then makes a decision that may or may not reflect the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution. There are advantages and disadvantages in making group decisions. The biggest one is that the acceptance of participants is high, mainly because theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve had an opportunity to give their opinion. They feel like theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve had a say in the new process, so theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll naturally support it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also a huge advantage in the implementation stage, because the employees understand what management is trying to achieve. Many times the subordinates bring knowledge and experience that even the manager might not have. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the employees who work in the details, and they might have good input in solving problems. One of the disadvantages of group decision making is the time it takes. A lot of time can be wasted meeting in groups to come up with good ideas. Another negative aspect is that groups tend to make riskier decisions because the responsibility doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fall on just one person. In the same sense, group embers might not put that much effort into thinking of all the ramifications of their decisions, because they think someone else is probably thinking of that already. The main takeaway from participation in decision making is that it really depends on the situation, and the problem being solved. The challenge for the manager is to know when he should employ each of the decision making approaches according to the situation. A smart manager will know how to use these managing tools to make decisions that are not only efficient, but will also have the support and buy-in from the employees. Conclusion A good manager will assess each situation and find opportunities where change can be made; always looking for the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest. When making important decisions, the manager will see the type of environment heÃ¢â¬â¢s in, if thereÃ¢â¬â¢s certainty or not, and always account for the contending interests his decisions will undoubtedly face. A wise decision maker will recognize a situation that requires an intervention on his behalf. He will generate and evaluate different options, and apply the concepts of maximizing, satisficing, and optimizing to make the best decision. Not only does the manager choose; he acts. He takes responsibility and accountability for his choices, and makes sure thereÃ¢â¬â¢s follow through in the implementation stage of the process. The decision maker will then evaluate the results, to validate that his decisions are having the results that were intended. If not, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll go back to the drawing board. Organizations live and die by the decisions made by managers, and to the extent that they can define problems, and make smart choices. Good decision making is found at the heart of all successful businesses.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2345 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Research paper Level High school Did you like this example? Operations Management in Business Contents WH Smith Introduction Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Referencing WH Smith Introduction WH Smith was first created by Smith Family in 1792 as a newsagent, in then became the company with the name Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âWH SmithÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã in 1828 and launched the website WHSmith.co.uk in 1999. This success fully growing company opened many stores in Rails stations, High Streets, Shopping Centers and gradually lost its profit of ÃâÃ £135m. The arrival of Kate Swann made WH Smith to run as the profitable company in a decade. The success of her achievement is based on how she organized and worked towards her goal. Throughout this report there are many explanations related to WH SmithÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s success using operation management skills by Kate Swann. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Operations Management in Business WH Smith" essay for you Create order Task 1 Operation is the key part of the business which produces goods and services. It involves in planning organizing, controlling an organization operations. Organization without a planning will never be able to success in its business. According to the scenario, the success of profit is based on the Operation Management, which involves a complex set of management activities involved in planning how they wanted to improve their sales organizing leading, by cutting the costs. Kate Swann managed to achieve the target of turning WH Smith into a profitable company by taking into account of the operational management. Following the principles of operation management in an organization will help the company to reduce the cost of products and services and also in the mean time it will help to increase the customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s satisfaction towards the product quality and the services. As the operations function is responsible in goods and services, it is important to support the input an d output to be delivered on time scale. Various input such as capital, labor, and information should be measured in order to obtain desired outputs. The role of operation management is to improve productivity which will help to improve the organizations financial and also to meet customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s competitive priorities. In the scenario it shows that Swann has targeted the teenagers and as well as young women for stationeries this make the targeted users to be satisfied as well increase the sales in WH Smith. The key elements of Operation managements are known as Business logic, System theory. Kate Swann has understood the business logic in how to increase the profit for WH Smith. She understood how to target the customers and increase the profitable margin. In her success we can see that she has cut the cost persistently which is one of the element in business logic. Applying system theory to a business helps to find out how the environment impacts business process. According to the report of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âOur Quality Commitments to Our CustomersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã in WH Smith website it clearly says that WH Smith is responsible to fulfill the minimum standards required by the law. If WH Smith reduces the standards and quality towards their customers due the cost effective they might not be able to success in our goal. For example Funky Pigeon greeting card shop which was open online is a best known website because customers get best services. Even though it was introduced to the market 2 years ago it has been famous. The reason behind this is their quality and services that they have been giving to their customers so far. The customers get the opportunity to choose their cards with uploading their own pictures and also the cards ordered by the customers are delivered very next day to their required address. This will impress the customers and make them come back. The online strategy objective of WH Smith is to launch the Funky Pigeon which s ells greeting cards, personalized gifts and cards according to the customers need. The products that are sold in this website are very quality as well as cost effective. The services given to the customers are very dependability as funky pigeon is a fastest delivery service. It has the next day delivery services for their customers. More customers may prefer to visit their website as they are not limited by options in cards. The customers got the verity of option in choosing cards. As funky pigeon allows the option of personalizing the gifts or cards the customers may be satisfied in choosing any of the products from them. System is known as the collection of parts which can function independently for the success of the common purpose. For example, System contains the Input Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" Process- Output in an organization. It is essential that all the collection part in a system work collaborate for a company to be successful. WH Smith should follow each parts as Input and P rocess and output to make their company to run in organize planning and control and to be on right track Sub-system is known as the complex collections of many Systems in order to achieve the common purpose. In other words it contains many Input many process and many output to achieve the goal of the company. WH Smith may contain many system and sub-system diagram for the organization. Following diagram shows the system function in WH Smith. Task 2 Strategic planning is an organizational management activity which helps to set priorities, strengthen operations, and to ensure that employees work towards the goals to achieve success. An effective strategic planning articulates not only where and what actions needed to make progress, but also how it will know if it successful. In order to implement success strategic planning need to follow the performance of operational management. Operational management is essential for all organizations. The strategic planning mostly deals with activities of any business organizations such as operations, sales, finance concerned with different level managers. Operational management is focused with the production / services provider level of organizations. There are three stages of strategic planning. They are known as Economy, Efficiency and Effectiveness. To achieve the profit margin Swann has introduced the stationeries targeting the teenagers and young women. WH Smith started to sell station eries and sweets at the checkouts. This is a good example that Swann has used one of the strategic planning elements known as Economy. As it is essential assign that right resources has been used at the right time at the right place and right cost which a management should consider in business objectives. In other hand WH Smith has the big online strategy Funky Pigeon where they work in very cost effective. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSwann announced she was pulling out of selling music and DVDsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , she has compared the market and in order to increase the profit margins. And the comparison stores such as HMV thinks that itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s brave. As she consider the Efficiency, she has compared the performance target she kept to increase the profit of WH Smith. Even though WH Smith has its high street retail it has target the online retailers by introducing Funky Pigeon card site. Effectiveness is determined by examining the objectives and achievement of a company. WH Smith was be en losing by 135m due to SwannÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s strong operational management the company has turn into profit of ÃâÃ £106m. Quality is very important for an organization. An example of good quality product with less cost is when a customer who consumes the product and services has nothing or less to complain about the product. In the scenario it says Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âWH Smith now sells roughly ÃâÃ £65 of goods for every ÃâÃ £100 of customÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã the success is they have carefully reviews the objectives. WH Smith has to review the existing products carefully in order to compare the function of the product required by the customer, who demands them in lower cost. Kate Swann has carefully reviewed and decided that selling of Music and DVDÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s are not profitable and not worth of reducing cost. So she completely stopped selling DVDÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s and started introducing new ideas on selling new products in WH Smith. They target certain age grou p to boost their sales. As we can see in the scenario that it says the teenagers and the young woman have been aimed for stationeries. What Kate Swann has done leads WH Smith for its success. Following the performance objective it helps to add value to the customers in delivering quality products or services. The Quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and the cost may defer as performance objectives. Quality services as known as error-free services. There may be no any complains about the product satisfaction. This can be improved by getting customers feedbacks. For example if we take WH Smith the quality can defer as the store cleanliness, an appropriate and attractive outlet and also very friendly and helpful staff so the customer may like to visit the store often. It also includes the goods conditions. As we see WH Smith has a big online strategy Funky Pigeon card site. If they fail to deliver their customers goods on time, they may have bad viewpoint against their service s and none of the customers like to continue doing shopping with them. When we look at the WH Smith store it all depends on a customer asking for a product or services and getting it to them, in another word satisfactory of their shopping in WH Smith. As we see in the scenario it says that Swann plans to open more shops which are stuffed with stock and screaming promotional banners. This is a role of operational management to achieve as itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s based on dependability. It increases the product or service in the market. WH Smith has sold stationary targeting the teenagers and young women and they also started to display sweets at the checkout make customers to purchase them. If they have not been flexible in introducing new lines to their sales they will not be able to achieve success in their business. Swann also cuts down the cost in order to boost her profit margins. These are the importance five performance objectives that underpin operation managements. Task 3 For a good operational planning is very important, this will lead the organizations to know what they have to do next, in order to deliver best services to the customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s demand. Planning and controlling related to each other. It is essential to consider these methods in an organization like WH Smith as they helps for the effective outcome. Planning helps what to do and when to do in other hand controlling involves making sure that the plans are taken place. The planning and controlling involves cost estimation, work measurement, planning, routine concerns. Based on this scenario we can see that WH Smith has planned how to fulfill the needs of their customers. Kate Swann for example knew that young women and teenagers will purchase their stationeries and mean time the sweet has been display near the counter in order to promote it to their clients. If Kate Swann didnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t think of what customers normally demand, WH Smith may not be able to satisfy thei r customers. Linear program is a mathematical technique designed to help to plan and make decisions. This will help to maximize or minimize some quantities such as profits or cost. Liner program requires action on what to choose, where Kate Swann need to introduce displaying sweets near the checkout. One of the examples of WH Smith success in applying linear program in operational management is when Kate Swann stops selling music and DVDs to increase the profit margin. For renovating WH Smith shops there are certain tasks need to be planned. The following table is the tasks listed down for the shop renovation. Activity Duration A Structure repair 4 B Ceiling 2 C Flooring 4 D Electrical Power require 1 E Main Shop area tidy 3 F Exterior Walls repair 2 G Paint outside 1 H Check out area 1 I Shelf 2 J Alarm 1 D must follow A G must follow A and F H must follow A, C, D and F I must follow A, C and E J must follow A and D The above network diagram is an for an WH Smith renovation. WH Smith was running with lose until Swann take over to make it a profit. When we look into the operational outcomes we can see clearly that the WH Smith lose of ÃâÃ £135m turned into profit of ÃâÃ £106m. Another example of operational outcome is targeting of displaying sweets at the checkout and also selling stationery aiming teenagers and young women. Quality can defined by the process through which a business seeks to make sure that the product quality is maintained or improved meantime reduces the errors. It requires both management and employees make every effort for perfection. And according to the Scenario it sets an example Kate Swann stops selling music and DVDs and also the checkout assistants attempt to force-feed the chocolates displayed at the checkout areas. Without planning and controlling an organization will be hard to monitor. It is essential to follow the concepts of Operational mana gement in order to achieve success in an organization. Kate SwannÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s success is based on how she followed the operation management skills in order to bring the profit to a company which was running in loss. As Kate Swann follows these skill it states in the scenario that she has the ability to make a unpleasant shops to have profit business. Referencing Six Sigma, [Online], Available: https://www.isixsigma.com/implementation/financial-analysis/cost-quality-not-only-failure-costs/ Operations Management, fourth edition,[ Online], Available: https://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/ema_uk_he_slack_opsman_4/17/4472/1144836.cw/ The Guardian,[online], Available: https://www.theguardian.com/business/blog/2013/jan/23/wh-smith-kate-swann-profit Introduction of Operation Management, [Online], Available: https://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070951675/436573/samplech01.pdf Muhammed Akram Khan, Performance Auditing Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" The Three Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"EÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s, [Online], Available: https://www.asosai.org/journal1988/performance_auditing.htm Operational Planning, Wikipedia, [Online], Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_planning Linear Programming, [Online], Available: https://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/2234/2288589/ModB.pdf Sree Rama Rao, (2009) Operational Planning and control decisions,[Online], Available: https://www.citeman.com/5031-operational-planning-and-control-decisions.html Quality management, Wikipedia, [Online], Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_management WH Smith, About WH Smith, [Online], https://www.whsmith.co.uk/fcp/content/Help-AboutUs-AboutWHSmith/content
Friday, December 27, 2019
How did The Holocaust take away the rights of Jewish people? Well, Jewish people had to be locked up in concentration camps, work hard labor, be poorly fed, get abused, and a lot more. Right before World War two the great depression had happened, leading into the holocaust. The Holocaust had started in 1933 Adolf Hitler had become chancellor of Germany. The Great Depression hit Germany. The Nazi officials were Adolf Hitler, Adolf Eichmann, August igruber, Joseph Goebbles, Amon Goeth, Herman Goring, Reinhard Heydrich, Heinrich Himmler,Alfred Rosenburg, Dr. Klaus Karl Schilling, Julius Strenicher. During this time he needed to make up an excuse to blame the great depression on the Jews. In 1933 there were over 9 million Jews. There was alsoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦On March 20, 1933 Dachua was one of the first camps established. Nazi doctors conducted experiments on twin prisoners to find out why and how to twins are made, so Hitler can breed twins to stop the Jewish Ã¢â¬Å"cultur e.Ã¢â¬ Auschwitz was the largest of all of the death camps and was also the cruelest: 1.1 million Jews were killed at this death camp. In these camps all of the Jewish prisoners had to share bunks with up to three or four people in each bunk without any pillows or mattresses or blankets; they just had to sleep on wooden crowded bunks in very gross, unsanitary rooms. All of the people in Nazi Germany were invading country after country with the goal to wipe out the whole Jewish population. The reason for this was Hitler demonized the Jewish population and made them seem like the whole reason that they were suffering in the war and had such a bad economy was all because of the Jews. When the Jews were taken into these camps, they would take all of their wedding rings, shoes, glasses, and if someone had a golden tooth they would yank it out with a pair of pliers right on the spot. The prisoners had to wear striped suits with a yellow star to indicate their religion. The German gover nment first introduces mandatory badges in Poland on November, 1939. Jews that failed to wear this badge risked death. Every Jew was also tattooed with aShow MoreRelated Holocaust Essay1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHolocaust The Holocaust remains, and will continue to remain as one of the most horrific things that has happened to a group of people. The absolute inhumanity of the Holocaust puzzles people even today. Contemporary people wonder just how it happened, how could a people be systematically killed, tortured, murdered. The answer will probably never be found, but future generations can avoid something like the Holocaust by studying it, and never forgetting. The NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s did not start out withRead MoreHow is the extinguishing of the Jewish and Native American races similar?1743 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesI will be researching extinguishing of the Jewish and Native American races; the reasoning behind the atrocities, the suffering, and the aftermath. Both groups of people were stripped of their rights. The Native Americans were simply denied their rights and in Germany, during World War II, the Jewish populationÃ¢â¬â¢s rights were taken away. The plight of the Native American expanded over a longer time period, but there race was practically eradicated. The systematic state-sponsored murder of six millionRead MoreThe Holocaust : Political Issues And Rights In The Holocaust1030 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Holocaust was a disturbing event that happened years ago. It started January 30th 1933 and ended in May 8th 1945. Adolf Hitler was the person to blame for it because he had power over the germans because he became the dictator. It occur ed because Adolf Hitler didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like jewish people. It consisted of germans (Nazis) that wanted the destruction of all jewish people. Elie Wiesel was a Holocaust survivor and he talked about all the events that happened during the Holocaust. Elie and his dad wereRead MoreHow The Holocaust Was A Long Term Plan1461 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAssess the View That the Holocaust Was Mainly the Result of a Long Term Plan by Hitler to Eliminate the Jews Of the four historians, it is Kershaw, Goldhagen, and Peukert who propose the idea that the holocaust was a long-term plan and Berghahn who argues that it was a reaction to the circumstances brought about by expansion during world war two. All of the historians agree to a certain degree that the extermination of the Jewish people from Germany was a long term idea of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s, but it is atRead MoreTaking a Look at Holocaust Revisionism1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof about 6 million people. Imagine a disaster that could completely wipe out all of those people. Believe it or not, there has been a catastrophe in history that killed a number of people equal to the population of Missouri. This event is known as the Holocaust. During this genocide, the Nazi party in Germany tried to eliminate the whole jewish population. In the process of doing so they killed some six million innocent people. The Nazi Party nearly wiped out the entire Jewish population, leavingRead MoreThe Holocaust : Sociological Behaviors And Characters Of The Holocaust700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Holocaust was a depressing historical event. The holocaust was taken place in Germany, where Nazis took Jews away from their lives into a concentration camp. This camp is where the Jews mostly lived until their life demise. The movie, SchindlerÃ¢â¬â¢s List, showed a great interpretation of the historical event. This movie will bring up some sociological behavior between characters and symbols from the perspective of the characters. The movie has our main character named, Oskar Schindler. SchindlerRead MoreThe Wannsee Conference Essay1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Wannsee Conference Have you ever had a business meeting, a conference? Could you imagine a meeting to draw an outline to exterminate a population, 11 million Jews? The Wannsee Conference was a Ã¢â¬Å"meetingÃ¢â¬ to discuss how they would kill all the Jews. The Wannsee Conference put the Final Solution in motion; the World had lost their opportunity to save 6 million Jews and others. The Beginning Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, after World War 1 when tensions were high because the Treaty ofRead MoreThe Holocaust During World War II1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIrania De La O Grade 8 The Holocaust Eleven million innocent people died and many did not know what they did or why it was happening to them (Rice 11). The Holocaust happened because of the Germans after World War 2 thought that the reason that their economy was falling down was because of Jewish people. The Holocaust followed the Ladder of Prejudice is a started with speech and moved its way up to Ã¢â¬Å"The Final SolutionÃ¢â¬ also known as extermination. Hitler did not start with killing Jews. He killedRead MoreChildren During the Holocaust1306 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThroughout the Holocaust, Ã¢â¬Å"the Nazis killed over 1.5 billion childrenÃ¢â¬ (Children during the Holocaust). Of these children, one million of them were Jewish. The Nazis had no good reason to kill them; they only killed these innocent children because Hitler did not care for their race. The Nazis, a forceful, merciless power led by Adolf Hitler brainwashed the country of Germany into believing that Jews and other races were awful. These children bravely fought persecution and avoided death by hidingRead MoreEssay on The Holocaust1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Holocaust Ã¢â¬ We are the children of the holocaust. We are both Germans and Jews. We are the children of the victims. We are the children of the oppressors. We started out on opposite sides but the memory of the holocaust will join us forever. We shall never let the victims be forgotten, for if we do, we will forget that the perpetrator can be in all of us.Ã¢â¬ This poem expresses quite well the sensation that most individuals feel when they hear the word Ã¢â¬Å"Holocaust.Ã¢â¬ Although they may not have